These peptides are designated Leucophaea maderae tachykinin-related peptides (Lem TRPs). Some were isolated from the midgut of L. maderae, whereas others appear to be brain specific. The Lem TRPs of the brain are myotropic and induce increases in the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions and tonus of hindgut muscle in L. maderae. They were also isolated from brain-corpora, cardiaca-corpora, allata-suboesophageal ganglion extracts of the Locusta migratoria. They stimulate visceral muscle contractions of the oviduct and the foregut of Locusta migratoria.