PAGK represents a new of virulence factors that is translocated into the host cytoplasm via bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMV). Members are small proteins composed of ##70 amino acids. In Salmonella they are secreted independently of the SPI-2 type-III secretion system, T3SS. The OMV functions as a vehicle for transferring virulence determinants to the cytoplasm of the infected host cell. OMVs are released from the cell envelopes of Gram-negative bacteria and comprise a variety of outer membrane and periplasmic constituents, including proteins, phospholipids, lipopolysaccharides, and DNA.