Peptidase M14 carboxypeptidase subfamily N/E-like; Carboxypeptidase E subgroup
Peptidase M14 Carboxypeptidase (CP) E (CPE, also known as carboxypeptidase H, and enkephalin convertase; EC 188.8.131.52) belongs to the N/E subfamily of the M14 family of metallocarboxypeptidases (MCPs).The M14 family are zinc-binding CPs which hydrolyze single, C-terminal amino acids from polypeptide chains, and have a recognition site for the free C-terminal carboxyl group, which is a key determinant of specificity. CPE is an important enzyme responsible for the proteolytic processing of prohormone intermediates (such as pro-insulin, pro-opiomelanocortin, or pro-gonadotropin-releasing hormone) by specifically removing C-terminal basic residues. In addition, it has been proposed that the regulated secretory pathway (RSP) of the nervous and endocrine systems utilizes membrane-bound CPE as a sorting receptor. A naturally occurring point mutation in CPE reduces the stability of the enzyme and causes its degradation, leading to an accumulation of numerous neuroendocrine peptides that result in obesity and hyperglycemia. Reduced CPE enzyme and receptor activity could underlie abnormal placental phenotypes from the observation that CPE is down-regulated in enlarged placentas of interspecific hybrid (interspecies hybrid placental dysplasia, IHPD) and cloned mice.
Comment:Metallocarboxypeptidases share the zinc binding motif HXXE...H, where the zinc ion is penta-coordinated to ND1 atoms of the histidines, OE1 and OE2 atoms of the glutamic acid, and to a water molecule in a slightly distorted tetrahedral manner.