Second immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of the nectin-like molecules Necl-1 - Necl-4 (also known as cell adhesion molecules CADM3, CADM1, CADM2, and CADM4, respectively)
Ig2_Necl-1-4_like: domain similar to the second immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of the nectin-like molecules Necl-1 (also known as cell adhesion molecule 3 (CADM3)), Necl-2 (CADM1), Necl-3 (CADM2) and Necl-4 (CADM4). These nectin-like molecules have similar domain structures to those of nectins. At least five nectin-like molecules have been identified (Necl-1 - Necl-5). These have an extracellular region containing three Ig-like domains, one transmembrane region, and one cytoplasmic region. The N-terminal Ig-like domain of the extracellular region belongs to the V-type subfamily of Ig domains, is essential to cell-cell adhesion, and plays a part in the interaction with the envelope glycoprotein D of various viruses. Necl-1 and Necl-2 have Ca(2+)-independent homophilic and heterophilic cell-cell adhesion activity. Necl-1 is specifically expressed in neural tissue and is important to the formation of synapses, axon bundles, and myelinated axons. Necl-2 is expressed in a wide variety of tissues, and is a putative tumour suppressor gene, which is downregulated in aggressive neuroblastoma. Necl-3 has been shown to accumulate in tissues of the central and peripheral nervous system, where it is expressed in ependymal cells and myelinated axons. It is observed at the interface between the axon shaft and the myelin sheath. Necl-4 is expressed on Schwann cells, and plays a key part in initiating peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelination. Necl-4 participates in cell-cell adhesion and is proposed to play a role in tumor suppression.