The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of yeast sorting nexin Vps5p
The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module present in many proteins with diverse functions. Sorting nexins (SNXs) make up the largest group among PX domain containing proteins. They are involved in regulating membrane traffic and protein sorting in the endosomal system. The PX domain of SNXs binds PIs and targets the protein to PI-enriched membranes. SNXs differ from each other in PI-binding specificity and affinity, and the presence of other protein-protein interaction domains, which help determine subcellular localization and specific function in the endocytic pathway. Vsp5p is the yeast counterpart of human SNX1 and is part of the retromer complex, which functions in the endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of vacuolar protein sorting receptor Vps10p, the Golgi-resident membrane protein A-ALP, and endopeptidase Kex2. The PX domain of Vps5p binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P). Similar to SNX1, Vps5p contains a Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain, which detects membrane curvature, C-terminal to the PX domain. Both domains have been shown to determine the specific membrane-targeting of SNX1.
Feature 1:phosphoinositide binding site [chemical binding site]
Comment:A majority of PX domain containing proteins binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) at this site. In some cases, other phosphoinositides, such as PI4P or PI(3,4)P2, are the preferred substrates.
Comment:based on the structures of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate bound to other members of this superfamily
Comment:Two basic residues are key in binding with phosphoinositides: one forms hydrogen bonds with the 3-phosphate of PI(3)P and another forms hydrogen bonds with the 4-and 5-hydroxyl groups of PI(3)P.