DNA-binding domain of retinoid X receptor (RXR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
DNA-binding domain of retinoid X receptor (RXR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers. Each zinc finger contains a group of four Cys residues which co-ordinates a single zinc atom. RXR functions as a DNA binding partner by forming heterodimers with other nuclear receptors including CAR, FXR, LXR, PPAR, PXR, RAR, TR, and VDR. All RXR heterodimers preferentially bind response elements composed of direct repeats of two AGGTCA sites with a 1-5 bp spacer. RXRs can play different roles in these heterodimers. RXR acts either as a structural component of the heterodimer complex, required for DNA binding but not acting as a receptor, or as both a structural and a functional component of the heterodimer, allowing 9-cis RA to signal through the corresponding heterodimer. In addition, RXR can also form homodimers, functioning as a receptor for 9-cis RA, independently of other nuclear receptors. Like other members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, RXR has a central well conserved DNA binding domain (DBD), a variable N-terminal domain, a flexible hinge and a C-terminal ligand binding domain (LBD).