The ligand binding domain of estrogen receptor and estrogen receptor-related receptors
The ligand binding domain of estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogen receptor-related receptors (ERRs): Estrogen receptors are a group of receptors which are activated by the hormone estrogen. Estrogen regulates many physiological processes including reproduction, bone integrity, cardiovascular health, and behavior. The main mechanism of action of the estrogen receptor is as a transcription factor by binding to the estrogen response element of target genes upon activation by estrogen and then recruiting coactivator proteins which are responsible for the transcription of target genes. Additionally some ERs may associate with other membrane proteins and can be rapidly activated by exposure of cells to estrogen. ERRs are closely related to the estrogen receptor (ER) family. But, it lacks the ability to bind estrogen. ERRs can interfere with the classic ER-mediated estrogen signaling pathway, positively or negatively. ERRs share target genes, co-regulators and promoters with the estrogen receptor (ER) family. Like other members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, ER and ERRs have a central well conserved DNA binding domain (DBD), a variable N-terminal domain, a non-conserved hinge and a C-terminal ligand binding domain (LBD).