opioid receptors and related proteins, member of the class A family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
This group includes opioid receptors, somatostatin receptors, melanin-concentrating hormone receptors (MCHRs), and neuropeptides B/W receptors. Together they constitute the opioid receptor-like family, members of the class A G-protein coupled receptors. Opioid receptors are coupled to inhibitory G proteins of the G(i/o) family and are involved in regulating a variety of physiological functions such as pain, addiction, mood, stress, epileptic seizure, and obesity, among many others. G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), which display strong sequence similarity with opioid receptors, binds somatostatin (somatotropin release inhibiting factor), a polypeptide hormone that regulates a wide variety of physiological functions such as neurotransmission, cell proliferation, contractility of smooth muscle cells, and endocrine signaling as well as inhibition of the release of many secondary hormones. MCHR binds melanin concentrating hormone and is presumably involved in the neuronal regulation of food intake. Despite strong homology with somatostatin receptors, MCHR does not appear to bind somatostatin. Neuropeptides B/W receptors are primarily expressed in the CNS and stimulate the cortisol secretion by activating the adenylate cyclase- and the phospholipase C-dependent signaling pathways.