anaphylatoxin receptors and related G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, member of the class A family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
This subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors includes anaphylatoxin receptors, formyl peptide receptors (FPR), prostaglandin D2 receptor 2, GPR1, and related chemokine receptors. The anaphylatoxin receptors are a group of G-protein coupled receptors that bind anaphylatoxins. The members of this group include C3a and C5a receptors. The formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are chemoattractant GPCRs that involved in mediating immune responses to infection. They are expressed mainly on polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes and bind N-formyl-methionyl peptides (FMLP), which are derived from the mitochondrial proteins of ruptured host cells or invading pathogens. Chemokine receptor-like 1 (also known as chemerin receptor 23) is a GPCR for the chemoattractant adipokine chemerin, also known as retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2 (RARRES2), and for the omega-3 fatty acid derived molecule resolvin E1. Interaction with chemerin induces activation of the MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways leading to downstream functional effects, such as a decrease in immune responses, stimulation of adipogenesis, and angiogenesis. On the other hand, resolvin E1 negatively regulates the cytokine production in macrophages by reducing the activation of MAPK1/3 and NF-kB pathways. Prostaglandin D2 receptor, also known as CRTH2, is a chemoattractant G-protein coupled receptor expressed on T helper type 2 cells that binds prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). PGD2 functions as a mast cell-derived mediator to trigger asthmatic responses and also causes vasodilation. PGD2 exerts its inflammatory effects by binding to two G-protein coupled receptors, the D-type prostanoid receptor (DP) and PD2R2 (CRTH2). PD2R2 couples to the G protein G(i/o) type which leads to a reduction in intracellular cAMP levels and an increase in intracellular calcium. GPR1 is an orphan receptor that can be activated by the leukocyte chemattractant chemerin, thereby suggesting that some of the anti-inflammatory actions of chemerin may be mediated through GPR1.