G protein-coupled receptors for prostanoids, member of the class A family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
Prostanoids are the cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolites of arachidonic acid, which include the prostaglandins (PGD2, PGE2, PGF2alpha), prostacyclin (PGI2), and thromboxane A2 (TxA2). These five major bioactive prostanoids acts as mediators or modulators in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes within the kidney and play important roles in inflammation, platelet aggregation, and vasoconstriction/relaxation, among many others. They act locally by preferentially interacting with G protein-coupled receptors designated DP, EP. FP, IP, and TP, respectively. The phylogenetic tree suggests that the prostanoid receptors can be grouped into two major branches: G(s)-coupled (DP1, EP2, EP4, and IP) and G(i)- (EP3) or G(q)-coupled (EP1, FP, and TP), forming three clusters.