D1-like family of dopamine receptors, member of the class A family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
Dopamine receptors are members of the class A G protein-coupled receptors that are involved in many neurological processes in the central nervous system (CNS). The neurotransmitter dopamine is the primary endogenous agonist for dopamine receptors. Dopamine receptors consist of at least five subtypes: D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5. The D1 and D5 subtypes are members of the D1-like family of dopamine receptors, whereas the D2, D3 and D4 subtypes are members of the D2-like family. The D1-like family receptors are coupled to G proteins of the G(s) family, which activate adenylate cyclase, causing cAMP formation and activation of protein kinase A. In contrast, activation of D2-like family receptors is linked to G proteins of the G(i) family, which inhibit adenylate cyclase. Dopamine receptors are major therapeutic targets for neurological and psychiatric disorders such as drug abuse, depression, schizophrenia, or Parkinson's disease. All GPCRs have a common structural architecture comprising of seven-transmembrane (TM) alpha-helices interconnected by three extracellular and three intracellular loops. A general feature of GPCR signaling is agonist-induced conformational changes in the receptors, leading to activation of the heterotrimeric G proteins, which consist of the guanine nucleotide-binding G-alpha subunit and the dimeric G-beta-gamma subunits. The activated G proteins then bind to and activate numerous downstream effector proteins, which generate second messengers that mediate a broad range of cellular and physiological processes.