tyramine receptors and similar proteins, member of the class A family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
This group includes tyramine-specific receptors and similar proteins found in insects and other invertebrates. These tyramine receptors form a distinct receptor family that is phylogenetically different from the other tyramine/octopamine receptors which also found in invertebrates. Both octopamine and tyramine mediate their actions via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and are the invertebrate equivalent of vertebrate adrenergic neurotransmitters. In Drosophila, octopamine is involved in ovulation by mediating an egg release from the ovary, while a physiological role for tyramine in this process is not fully understood. All GPCRs have a common structural architecture comprising of seven-transmembrane (TM) alpha-helices interconnected by three extracellular and three intracellular loops. A general feature of GPCR signaling is agonist-induced conformational changes in the receptors, leading to activation of the heterotrimeric G proteins, which consist of the guanine nucleotide-binding G-alpha subunit and the dimeric G-beta-gamma subunits. The activated G proteins then bind to and activate numerous downstream effector proteins, which generate second messengers that mediate a broad range of cellular and physiological processes.