free fatty acid receptor 1, member of the class A family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
This subgroup includes the mammalian free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1), also called GPR40. FFAR1 is a cell-surface receptor for medium- and long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs). The receptor is most potently activated by eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3), but can also be activated at micromolar concentrations of various fatty acids. FFAR1 directly mediates FFA stimulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and indirectly increases insulin secretion by enhancing the release of incretin. Free fatty acid receptors (FFARs) belong to the class A G-protein coupled receptors and are comprised of three members, each encoded by a separate gene (FFAR1, FFAR2, and FFAR3). These genes and a fourth pseudogene, GPR42, are localized together on chromosome 19. FFARs are considered important components of the body's nutrient sensing mechanism, and therefore, these receptors are potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and obesity.