calcium-sensing receptor, member of the class C of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
CaSR is a widely expressed GPCR that is involved in sensing small changes in extracellular levels of calcium ion to maintain a constant level of the extracellular calcium via modulating the synthesis and secretion of calcium regulating hormones, such as parathyroid hormone (PTH), in order to regulate Ca(2+)transport into or out of the extracellular fluid via kidney, intestine, and/or bone. For instance, when Ca2+ is high, CaSR downregulates PTH synthesis and secretion, leading to an increase in renal Ca2+ excretion, a decrease in intestinal Ca2+ absorption, and a reduction in release of skeletal Ca2+. CaSR is coupled to both G(q/11)-dependent activation of phospholipase and, subsequently, intracellular calcium mobilization and protein kinase C activation as well as G(i/o)-dependent inhibition of adenylate cyclase leading to inhibition of cAMP formation. CaSR is closely related to GRPC6A (GPCR, class C, group 6, subtype A), which is an amino acid-sensing GPCR that is most potently activated by the basic amino acids L-arginine, L-lysine, and L-ornithine. These receptors contain a large extracellular Venus flytrap-like domain in the N-terminus, cysteine-rich domain (CRD), and seven-transmembrane (7TM) domain, which are characteristics of the class C GPCRs. The Venus flytrap-like domain shares strong sequence homology to bacterial periplasmic binding proteins and possess the orthosteric amino acid and calcium binding sites for members of the class C, including CaSR, GABA-B1, GPRC6A, mGlu, and TASR1 receptors.