muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype M5, member of the class A family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) regulate the activity of many fundamental central and peripheral functions. The mAChR family consists of 5 subtypes M1-M5, which can be further divided into two major groups according to their G-protein coupling preference. The M1, M3 and M5 receptors selectively interact with G proteins of the G(q/11) family, whereas the M2 and M4 receptors preferentially link to the G(i/o) types of G proteins. M5 mAChR is primarily found in the central nervous system and mediates acetylcholine-induced dilation of cerebral blood vessels. Activation of M5 receptor triggers a variety of cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides, and modulation of potassium channels. All GPCRs have a common structural architecture comprising of seven-transmembrane (TM) alpha-helices interconnected by three extracellular and three intracellular loops. A general feature of GPCR signaling is agonist-induced conformational changes in the receptors, leading to activation of the heterotrimeric G proteins, which consist of the guanine nucleotide-binding G-alpha subunit and the dimeric G-beta-gamma subunits. The activated G proteins then bind to and activate numerous downstream effector proteins, which generate second messengers that mediate a broad range of cellular and physiological processes.