neuromedin U receptor subtype 2, member of the class A family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide with a common C-terminal heptapeptide sequence (FLFRPRN-amide) found at the highest levels in the gastrointestinal tract and pituitary gland of mammals. Disruption or replacement of residues in the conserved heptapeptide region can result in the reduced ability of NMU to stimulate smooth-muscle contraction. Two G-protein coupled receptor subtypes, NMU-R1 and NMU-R2, with a distinct expression pattern, have been identified to bind NMU. NMU-R1 is expressed primarily in the peripheral nervous system, while NMU-R2 is mainly found in the central nervous system. Neuromedin S, a 36 amino-acid neuropeptide that shares a conserved C-terminal heptapeptide sequence with NMU, is a highly potent and selective NMU-R2 agonist. Pharmacological studies have shown that both NMU and NMS inhibit food intake and reduce body weight, and that NMU increases energy expenditure.