luteinizing hormone-choriogonadotropin receptor, member of the class A family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
The glycoprotein hormone receptors are seven transmembrane domain receptors with a very large extracellular N-terminal domain containing many leucine-rich repeats responsible for hormone recognition and binding. The glycoprotein hormone family includes the three gonadotropins: luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), chorionic gonadotropin (CG), and a pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The glycoprotein hormones exert their biological functions by interacting with their cognate GPCRs. Both LH and CG bind to the same receptor, the luteinizing hormone-choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR); FSH binds to FSH-R and TSH to TSH-R. LHCGR is expressed predominantly in the ovary and testis, and plays an essential role in sexual development and reproductive processes. LHCGR couples primarily to the G(s)-protein and activates adenylate cyclase, thereby promoting cAMP production.