prolactin-releasing peptide receptor, member of the class A family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) receptor (previously known as GPR10) is expressed in the central nervous system with the highest levels located in the anterior pituitary and is activated by its endogenous ligand PrRP, a neuropeptide possessing a C-terminal Arg-Phe-amide motif. There are two active isoforms of PrRP in mammals: one consists of 20 amino acids (PrRP-20) and the other consists of 31 amino acids (PrRP-31), where PrRP-20 is a C-terminal fragment of PrRP-31. Binding of PrRP to the receptor coupled to G(i/o) proteins activates the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and it can also couple to G(q) protein leading to an increase in intracellular calcium and activation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK). The PrRP receptor shares significant sequence homology with the neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor, and micromolar levels of NPY can bind and completely inhibit the PrRP-evoked intracellular calcium response in PrRP receptor-expressing cells, suggesting that the PrRP receptor shares a common ancestor with the NPY receptors. PrRP has been shown to reduce food intake and body weight and modify body temperature when administered in rats. It also has been shown to decrease circulating growth hormone levels by activating somatostatin-secreting neurons in the hypothalamic periventricular nucleus.