cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptors, group IV adhesion GPCRs, member of the class B2 family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
The group IV adhesion GPCRs include the cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptors (CELSRs) and their Drosophila homolog Flamingo (also known as Starry night). These receptors are also classified as that belongs to the EGF-TM7 group of subfamily B2 adhesion GPCRs, because they contain EGF-like domains. Functionally, the group IV receptors act as key regulators of many physiological processes such as endocrine cell differentiation, neuronal migration, dendrite growth, axon, guidance, lymphatic vessel and valve formation, and planar cell polarity (PCP) during embryonic development. The adhesion receptors are characterized by the presence of large N-terminal extracellular domains containing multiple adhesion motifs, which play critical roles in cell-cell adhesion and cell-matrix interactions, that are coupled to a class B seven-transmembrane domain. In the case of CELSR/Flamingo/Starry night, their extracellular domains comprise nine cadherin repeats linked to a series of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like and laminin globular (G)-like domains. The cadherin repeats contain sequence motifs that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion by homophilic interactions. Moreover, almost all adhesion receptors, except GPR123, contain an evolutionarily conserved GPCR- autoproteolysis inducing (GAIN) domain that undergoes autoproteolytic processing at the GPCR proteolysis site (GPS) motif located immediately N-terminal to the first transmembrane region, to generate N- and C-terminal fragments (NTF and CTF), which may serve important biological functions. Three mammalian orthologs of Flamingo, Celsr1-3, are widely expressed in the nervous system from embryonic development until the adult stage. Each Celsr exhibits different expression patterns in the developing brain, suggesting that they serve distinct functions. Mutations of CELSR1 cause neural tube defects in the nervous system, while mutations of CELSR2 are associated with coronary heart disease. Moreover, CELSR1 and several other PCP signaling molecules, such as dishevelled, prickle, frizzled, have been shown to be upregulated in B lymphocytes of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Celsr3 is expressed in both the developing and adult mouse brain. It has been functionally implicated in proper neuron migration and axon guidance in the CNS.