bombesin receptor subfamily, member of the class A family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
This bombesin subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors consists of neuromedin B receptor (NMBR), gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), and bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3). Bombesin is a tetradecapeptide, originally isolated from frog skin. Mammalian bombesin-related peptides are widely distributed in the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. The bombesin family receptors couple mainly to the G proteins of G(q/11) family. NMBR functions as the receptor for the neuropeptide neuromedin B, a potent mitogen and growth factor for normal and cancerous lung and for gastrointestinal epithelial tissues. Gastrin-releasing peptide is an endogenous ligand for GRPR and shares high sequence homology with NMB in the C-terminal region. Both NMB and GRP possess bombesin-like biochemical properties. BRS-3 is classified as an orphan receptor and suggested to play a role in sperm cell division and maturation. BRS-3 interacts with known naturally-occurring bombesin-related peptides with low affinity; however, no endogenous high-affinity ligand to the receptor has been identified. The bombesin receptor family belongs to the seven transmembrane rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptors (class A GPCRs), which perceive extracellular signals and transduce them to guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins.