EGF-like module receptors, group II adhesion GPCRs, member of class B2 family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
group II adhesion GPCRs, including the leukocyte cell-surface antigen CD97 and the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-module-containing, mucin-like hormone receptor (EMR1-4), are primarily expressed in cells of the immune system. All EGF-TM7 receptors, which belong to the B2 subfamily B2 of adhesion GPCRs, are members of group II, except for ETL (EGF-TM7-latrophilin related protein), which is classified into group I. Members of the EGF-TM7 receptors are characterized by the presence of varying numbers of N-terminal EGF-like domains, which play critical roles in ligand recognition and cell adhesion, linked by a stalk region to a class B seven-transmembrane domain. In the case of CD97, alternative splicing results in three isoforms possessing either three (EGF1,2,5), four (EGF1,2,3,5) or five (EGF1,2,3,4,5) EGF-like domains. On the other hand, EMR2 generates four isoforms possessing either two (EGF1,2), three (EGF1,2,5), four (EGF1,2,3,5) or five (EGF1,2,3,4,5) EGF-like domains. Moreover, almost all adhesion receptors, except GPR123, contain an evolutionarily conserved GPCR- autoproteolysis inducing (GAIN) domain that undergoes autoproteolytic processing at the GPCR proteolysis site (GPS) motif located immediately N-terminal to the first transmembrane region, to generate N- and C-terminal fragments (NTF and CTF), which may serve important biological functions. For example, CD97, which is involved in angiogenesis and the migration and invasion of tumor cells, has been shown to promote cell aggregation in a GPS proteolysis-dependent manner. CD97 is widely expressed on lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, granulocytes and smooth muscle cells as well as in a variety of human tumors including colorectal, gastric, esophageal pancreatic, and thyroid carcinoma. EMR2 shares strong sequence homology with CD97, differing by only six amino acids. However, unlike CD97, EMR2 is not found in those of CD97-positive tumor cells and is not expressed on lymphocytes but instead on monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes. CD97 has three known ligands: CD55, decay-accelerating factor for regulation of complement system; chondroitin sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan found in the extracellular matrix; and the integrin alpha5beta1, which play a role in angiogenesis. Although EMR2 does not effectively interact with CD55, the fourth EGF-like domain of this receptor binds to chondroitin sulfate to mediate cell attachment.