somatostatin receptor type 5, member of the class A family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are composed of five distinct subtypes (SSTR1-5) that display strong sequence similarity with opioid receptors. All five receptor subtypes bind the natural somatostatin (somatotropin release inhibiting factor), a polypeptide hormone that regulates a wide variety of physiological functions such as neurotransmission, cell proliferation, contractility of smooth muscle cells, and endocrine signaling as well as inhibition of the release of many secondary hormones. SSTR5 is coupled to inward rectifying K channels and phospholipase C, and plays critical roles in growth hormone and insulin secretion. SSTR5 acts as a negative regulator of PDX-1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1) expression, which is a conserved homeodomain-containing beta cell-specific transcription factor essentially involved in pancreatic development, among many other functions.