substance-K receptor, member of the class A family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
The substance-K receptor (SKR), also known as tachykinin receptor 2 (TACR2) or neurokinin A receptor or NK2R, is a G-protein coupled receptor that specifically binds to neurokinin A. The tachykinins are widely distributed throughout the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems and act as excitatory transmitters on neurons and cells in the gastrointestinal tract. The TKs are characterized by a common five-amino acid C-terminal sequence, Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is a hydrophobic residue. The three major mammalian tachykinins are substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), and neurokinin B (NKB). The physiological actions of tachykinins are mediated through three types of receptors: neurokinin receptor type 1 (NK1R), NK2R, and NK3R. SP is a high-affinity endogenous ligand for NK1R, which interacts with the Gq protein and activates phospholipase C, leading to elevation of intracellular calcium. NK2R is a high-affinity receptor for NKA, the tachykinin neuropeptide substance K. SP and NKA are found in the enteric nervous system and mediate the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, secretion, vascular permeability, and pain perception.