Glycoproteins B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) are expressed on antigen-presenting cells and deliver the co-stimulatory signal through CD28 and CTLA-4 (CD152) on T cells. Signalling through CD28 augments the T-cell response, whereas CTLA-4 signalling attenuates it. The CTLA-4 and B7-2 monomers are both two-layer beta-sandwiches that display the chain topology characteristic of the immunoglobulin variable (V-type) domains present in antigen receptors. The front and back sheets of B7-2 are composed of AGFCC'C" and BED strands, respectively. Members of the IgV family are components of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptors. The basic structure of Ig molecules is a tetramer of two light chains and two heavy chains linked by disulfide bonds. In Ig, each chain is composed of one variable domain (IgV) and one or more constant domains (IgC); these names reflect the fact that the variability in sequences is higher in the variable domain than in the constant domain. Within the variable domain, there are regions of even more variability called the hypervariable or complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) which are responsible for antigen binding. A predominant feature of most Ig domains is the disulfide bridge connecting 2 beta-sheets with a tryptophan residue packed against the disulfide bond.