Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of Programmed cell Death 1 (PD1)
Programmed cell Death 1 (PD1, also known as CD279 or cluster of differentiation 279) is a cell surface receptor that is expressed on T cells and pro-B cells. The protein's structure includes an extracellular IgV domain followed by a transmembrane region and an intracellular tail. Activation of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, NKT cells, B cells, and monocytes induces PD-1 expression, immediately after which it binds two distinct ligands, PD-L1 (also known as B7-H1 or CD274) and PD-L2, also known as B7-DC. PD-1 plays an important role in down regulating the immune system by preventing the activation of T-cells, reducing autoimmunity and promoting self-tolerance. The inhibitory effect of PD-1 is accomplished by promoting apoptosis in antigen specific T-cells in lymph nodes while simultaneously reducing apoptosis in regulatory T cells. A class of drugs that target PD-1, known as the PD-1 inhibitors, activate the immune system to attack tumors and treat cancer. Comparisons between the mouse PD-1 (mPD-1) and human PD-1 (hPD-1) reveals that unlike the mPD-1 which has a conventional IgSF V-set domain, hPD-1 lacks a C" strand, and instead the C' and D strands are connected by a long and flexible loop. In addition, the BC loop is not stabilized by disulfide bonding to the F strand of the ligand binding beta sheet. These differences result in different binding affinities of human and mouse PD-1 for their ligands.