Immunoglobulin variable (IgV)-like domain in complement receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily (CRIg)
The N-terminal domain of CRIg (also referred to as Z39Ig and V-set and Ig domain-containing 4 (VSIG4), belongs to the IgV family of immunoglobulin-like domains while the C-terminal domain of CRIg belongs to the IgC family of immunoglobulin-like domains. Like all members of this family, the CRIg domain contains two beta-sheets, one composed of strands A', G, F, C, C' and C", and the other of strands B, E and D. The complement system is an important part of the innate immune system, and is required for removal of pathogens from the bloodstream. After exposure to pathogens, the third component of the complement system, C3, is cleaved to C3b which, after recruitment of factor B, initiates formation of the alternative pathway convertases. CRIg, a complement receptor expressed on macrophages, binds to C3b and iC3b mediating phagocytosis of the particles. It is also a potent inhibitor of the alternative pathway convertases and a negative regulator of T cell activation. The Ig superfamily is a heterogenous group of proteins, built on a common fold comprised of a sandwich of two beta sheets. Members of this group are components of immunoglobulin, neuroglia, cell surface glycoproteins, such as, T-cell receptors, CD2, CD4, CD8, and membrane glycoproteins, such as, butyrophilin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein. A predominant feature of most Ig domains is a disulfide bridge connecting the two beta-sheets with a tryptophan residue packed against the disulfide bond.