EF-hand motif found in phosphoinositide phospholipase C gamma 1 (PI-PLC-gamma1)
PI-PLC-gamma1, also termed 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase gamma-1, or PLC-148, or phospholipase C-II (PLC-II), or phospholipase C-gamma-1 (PLC-gamma-1), is abundantly expressed in embryonal cortical structures, neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, and is involved in various cellular events, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival, and cell death. It also associates with many diseases, including epilepsy, Huntington's disease (HD), depression, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and bipolar disorder. PI-PLC-gamma1 plays a critical role in cell migration and tumor cell invasiveness and metastasis. It can mediate the cell motility effects of growth factors, including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), as well as adhesion receptors. Moreover, PI-PLC-gamma1 can modulate neurite outgrowth, neuronal cell migration and synaptic plasticity through the Trk receptor. PI-PLC-gamma1 contains an N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, an array of EF hands, a PLC catalytic core domain, and a C2 domain. The PLC catalytic core domain is a TIM barrel with two highly conserved regions (X and Y) split by a highly degenerate linker sequence. Besides, PI-PLC-gamma1 has a second PH domain, two SH2 (Src homology 2) regions, and one SH3 (Src homology 3) region, which are present within this linker. PI-PLC-gamma1 is activated by receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases via its two SH2 and a single SH3 domain.