EF-hand, calcium binding motif, found in calumenin, reticulocalbin-1 (RCN-1), reticulocalbin-3 (RCN-3), and similar proteins
The family corresponds to a group of six EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins, including calumenin (also known as crocalbin or CBP-50), reticulocalbin-1 (RCN-1), reticulocalbin-3 (RCN-3), and similar proteins. Calumenin is an endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) resident low-affinity Ca2+-binding protein that contains six EF-hand domains and a C-terminal SR retention signal His-Asp-Glu-Phe (HDEF) tetrapeptide. It functions as a novel regulator of SERCA2, and its expressional changes are tightly coupled with Ca2+-cycling of cardiomyocytes. It is also broadly involved in haemostasis and in the pathophysiology of thrombosis. Moreover, the extracellular calumenin acts as a suppressor of cell migration and tumor metastasis. RCN-1 is an endoplasmic reticulum resident Ca2+-binding protein with a carboxyl-terminal His-Asp-Glu-Leu (HDEL) tetrapeptide signal. It acts as a potential negative regulator of B-RAF activation and can negatively modulate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling cascade. It also plays a key role in the development of doxorubicin-associated resistance. RCN-3 is a putative six EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein that contains five RXXR (X is any amino acid) motifs and a C-terminal ER retrieval signal HDEL tetrapeptide. The RXXR motif represents the target sequence of subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (SPCs). RCN-3 is specifically bound to the paired basic amino-acid-cleaving enzyme-4 (PACE4) precursor protein and plays an important role in the biosynthesis of PACE4.