RING finger, H2 subclass, found in the PA-TM-RING ubiquitin ligase family
The PA-TM-RING family represents a group of transmembrane-type E3 ubiquitin ligases, which has been characterized by an N-terminal transient signal peptide, a PA (protease-associated) domain, a TM (transmembrane) domain, as well as a C-terminal C3H2C3-type RING-H2 finger domain. It includes RNF13, RNF167, ZNRF4 (zinc and RING finger 4), GRAIL (gene related to anergy in lymphocytes)/RNF128, RNF130, RNF133, RNF148, RNF149 and RNF150 (which are more closely related), as well as RNF43 and ZNRF3 which have substantially longer C-terminal tail extensions compared with the others. PA-TM-RING proteins are expressed at low levels in all mammalian tissues and species, but they are not present in yeast. They play a common regulatory role in intracellular trafficking/sorting, suggesting that abrogation of their function may result in dysregulation of cellular signaling events in cancer.