RING finger, H2 subclass, found in RING-box protein 2 (RBX2) and similar proteins
RBX2, also known as CKII beta-binding protein 1 (CKBBP1), RING finger protein 7 (RNF7), regulator of cullins 2 (ROC2), or sensitive to apoptosis gene protein (SAG), is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that protects cells from apoptosis, confers radioresistance, and plays an essential and non-redundant role in embryogenesis and vasculogenesis. It promotes ubiquitination and degradation of a number of protein substrates, including c-JUN, DEPTOR, HIF-1alpha, IkappaBalpha, NF1, NOXA, p27, and procaspase-3, thus regulating various signaling pathways and biological processes. RBX2 is necessary for ubiquitin ligation activity of the multimeric cullin (Cul)-RING E3 ligases (CRLs). RBX2-containing CRLs are involved in NEDD8 pathway and RBX2 specifically regulate NEDD8ylation of Cul5. It can bind and activate HIV-1 Vif-Cullin5 E3 ligase complex in vitro. It is also a substrate of NEDD4-1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and mediates NEDD4-1 induced chemosensitization. The inactivation of RBX2 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity triggers senescence and inhibits Kras-induced immortalization. Endothelial deletion of RBX2 causes embryonic lethality and blocks tumor angiogenesis, suggesting a way for anti-angiogenesis therapy of human cancer. Moreover, as a component of Cullin 5-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL5) complex, RBX2 regulates neuronal migration through different CRL5 adaptors, such as SOCS7. Furthermore, RBX2 functions as a redox inducible antioxidant protein that scavenges oxygen radicals by forming inter- and intra-molecular disulfide bonds when acting alone. RBX2 contains a C-terminal C3H2C3-type RING-H2 finger that is essential for its ligase activity.