RING finger, H2 subclass, found in RING finger proteins RNF111, RNF165, and similar proteins
The family includes RING finger proteins RNF111, RNF165, and similar proteins. RNF111, also known as Arkadia, is a nuclear E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that targets intracellular effectors and modulators of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)/Nodal-related signaling for polyubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. It also interacts with the clathrin-adaptor 2 (AP2) complex and regulates endocytosis of certain cell surface receptors, leading to modulation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and possibly other signaling pathways. The N-terminal half of RNF111 harbors three SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs). It thus functions as a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) that directly links nonproteolytic ubiquitylation and SUMOylation in the DNA damage response, as well as triggers degradation of signal-induced polysumoylated proteins, such as the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML). RNF165, also known as Arkadia-like 2, or Arkadia2, or Ark2C, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase with homology to C-terminal half of RNF111. It is expressed specifically in the nervous system, and can serve to amplify neuronal responses to specific signals. It thus acts as a positive regulator of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-Smad signaling that is involved in motor neuron (MN) axon elongation. Both RNF165 and RNF111 contain a C-terminal C3H2C3-type RING-H2 finger.