RING finger, H2 subclass, found in synoviolin and similar proteins
Synoviolin, also known as synovial apoptosis inhibitor 1 (Syvn1), Hrd1, or Der3, is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchoring E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions as a suppressor of ER stress-induced apoptosis and plays a role in homeostasis maintenance. It also targets tumor suppressor gene p53 for proteasomal degradation, suggesting the crosstalk between ER associated degradation (ERAD) and p53 mediated apoptotic pathway under ER stress. Moreover, Synoviolin controls body weight and mitochondrial biogenesis through negative regulation of the thermogenic coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator (PGC)-1beta. It upregulates amyloid beta production by targeting a negative regulator of gamma-secretase, Retention in endoplasmic reticulum 1 (Rer1), for degradation. It is also involved in the degradation of endogenous immature nicastrin, and affects amyloid beta-protein generation. Moreover, Synoviolin is highly expressed in rheumatoid synovial cells and may be involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It functions as an anti-apoptotic factor that is responsible for the outgrowth of synovial cells during the development of RA. It promotes inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) ubiquitination and degradation in synovial fibroblasts with collagen-induced arthritis. Furthermore, the upregulation of Synoviolin may represent a protective response against neurodegeneration in Parkinson"s disease (PD). In addition, Synoviolin is involved in liver fibrogenesis. Synoviolin contains a C3H2C2-type RING-H2 finger.