RING-CH finger, H2 subclass (C4HC3-type), found in E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase listerin and similar proteins
Listerin, also known as RING finger protein 160 or zinc finger protein 294, is the mammalian homolog of yeast Ltn1. It is widely expressed in all tissues, but motor and sensory neurons and neuronal processes in the brainstem and spinal cord are primarily affected in the mutant. Listerin is required for embryonic development and plays an important role in neurodegeneration. It also functions as a critical E3 ligase involving quality control of nonstop proteins. It mediates ubiquitylation of aberrant proteins that become stalled on ribosomes during translation. Ltn1 works with several cofactors to form a large ribosomal subunit-associated quality control complex (RQC), whick mediates the ubiquitylation and extraction of ribosome-stalled nascent polypeptide chains for proteasomal degradation. It appears to first associate with nascent chain-stalled 60S subunits together with two proteins of unknown function, Tae2 and Rqc1. Listerin contains a long stretch of HEAT (Huntingtin, Elongation factor 3, PR65/A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, and TOR) or ARM (Armadillo) repeats in the N terminus and middle region, and a catalytic RING-CH finger, also known as vRING or RINGv, with an unusual arrangement of zinc-coordinating residues in the C-terminus . Its cysteines and histidines are arranged in the sequence as C4HC3-type, rather than the C3H2C3-type in canonical RING-H2 finger.