RING finger, HC subclass, found in bifunctional apoptosis regulator (BAR)
BAR, also known as RING finger protein 47, was originally identified as an inhibitor of Bax-induced apoptosis. It participates in the block of apoptosis induced by TNF-family death receptors (extrinsic pathway) and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis (intrinsic pathway). BAR is predominantly expressed by neurons in the central nervous system and is involved in the regulation of neuronal survival. It is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that interacts with BI-1 protein and post-translationally regulates its stability as well as functions in ER stress. BAR contains an N-terminal C3HC4-type RING-HC finger, a SAM domain, a coiled-coil domain, and a C-terminal transmembrane (TM) domain. This family corresponds to the RING-HC finger responsible for the binding of ubiquitin conjugating enzymes (E2s).