RING finger, HC subclass, found in Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl) proteins
The Cbl adaptor proteins family contains a small class of RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases with oncogenic activity, which is represented by three mammalian members, c-Cbl, Cbl-b and Cbl-c, as well as two invertebrate Cbl-family proteins, D-Cbl in Drosophila and Sli-1 in C. elegans. Cbl proteins function as potent negative regulators of various signaling cascades in a wide range of cell types. They play roles in ubiquitinating the activated tyrosine kinases and targeting them for degradation. D-Cbl associates with the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and overexpression of D-Cbl in the eye of Drosophila embryos inhibits EGFR dependent photoreceptor cell development. Sli-1 is a negative regulator of the Let-23 receptor tyrosine kinase, an EGFR homolog, in vulva development. Cbl proteins in this family consist of a highly conserved N-terminal half that includes a tyrosine-kinase-binding domain (TKB, also known as the phosphotyrosine binding PTB domain, is composed of a four helix-bundle, a Ca2+ binding EF-hand and a highly variant SH2 domain) and a C3HC4-type RING-HC finger, both of which are required for Cbl-mediated downregulation of RTKs, and a divergent C-terminal region.