RING finger, HC subclass, found in RING finger protein 146 (RNF146) and similar proteins
RNF146, also known as dactylidin, or iduna, is a cytoplasmic E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that is responsible for PARylation-dependent ubiquitination (PARdU). It displays neuroprotective property due to its inhibition of Parthanatos, a PAR dependent cell death, via binding with Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). It also modulates PAR polymerase-1 (PARP-1)-mediated oxidative cell injury in cardiac myocytes. Moreover, RNF146 mediates tankyrase-dependent degradation of axin, thereby positively regulates Wnt signaling. It also facilitates DNA repair and protects against cell death induced by DNA damaging agents or gamma-irradiation through translocating to the nucleus after cellular injury and promoting the ubiquitination and degradation of various nuclear proteins involved in DNA damage repair. Furthermore, RNF146 is implicated in neurodegenerative disease and cancer development. It regulates the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by enhancing cell growth, invasion, and survival. RNF146 contains an N-terminal C3HC4-type RING-HC finger followed by a WWE domain with a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) binding motif at the tail.