RING finger, HC subclass, found in topoisomerase I-binding arginine/serine-rich protein (Topors) and similar proteins
Topors, also known as topoisomerase I-binding RING finger protein, tumor suppressor p53- binding protein 3, or p53-binding protein 3 (p53BP3), is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that can ligate both ubiquitin and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to substrate proteins in the nucleus. It contains an N-terminal C3HC4-type RING-HC finger which ligates ubiquitin to its target proteins including DNA topoisomerase I, p53, NKX3.1, H2AX, and the AAV-2 Rep78/68 proteins. As a RING-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase, Topors works with the E2 enzymes UbcH5a, UbcH5c, and UbcH6, but not with UbcH7, CDC34, or UbcH2b. Topors acts as a tumor suppressor in various malignancies. It regulates p53 modification, suggesting it may be responsible for astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1, also known as metadherin, or LYRIC) ubiquitin modification. Plk1-mediated phosphorylation of Topors inhibits Topors-mediated sumoylation of p53, whereas p53 ubiquitination is enhanced, leading to p53 degradation. It also functions as a negative regulator of the prostate tumor suppressor NKX3.1. Moreover, Topors is associated with promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, and may be involved in the cellular response to camptothecin. It also plays a key role in the turnover of H2AX protein, discriminating the type of DNA damaging stress. Furthermore, Topors is a cilia-centrosomal protein associated with autosomal dominant retinal degeneration. Mutations in TOPORS cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP).