RING finger, HC subclass, found in tripartite motif-containing proteins TRIM5, TRIM6, TRIM22, TRIM34 and similar proteins
TRIM5, TRIM6, TRIM22, and TRIM34, four closely related tripartite motif-containing proteins, belong to the C-IV subclass of TRIM (tripartite motif) family of proteins that are defined by their N-terminal RBCC (RING, Bbox, and coiled coil) domains, including three consecutive zinc-binding domains, a C3HC4-type RING-HC finger, Bbox1 and Bbox2, and a coiled coil region, as well as a B30.2/SPRY (SplA and ryanodine receptor) domain positioned C-terminal to the RBCC domain. TRIM5, also known as RING finger protein 88 (RNF88), is a capsid-specific restriction factor that prevents infection from non-host-adapted retroviruses in a species-specific manner by binding to and destabilizing the retroviral capsid lattice before reverse transcription is completed. Its retroviral restriction activity correlates with the ability to activate TAK1-dependent innate immune signaling. TRIM5 also acts as a pattern recognition receptor that activates innate immune signaling in response to the retroviral capsid lattice. Moreover, TRIM5 plays a role in regulating autophagy through activation of autophagy regulator BECN1 by causing its dissociation from its inhibitors BCL2 and TAB2. It also plays a role in autophagy by acting as a selective autophagy receptor which recognizes and targets HIV-1 capsid protein p24 for autophagic destruction. TRIM6, also known as RING finger protein 89 (RNF89), is an E3-ubiquitin ligase that cooperates with the E2-ubiquitin conjugase UbE2K to catalyze the synthesis of unanchored K48-linked polyubiquitin chains, and further stimulates the interferon-I kappa B kinase epsilon (IKKepsilon) kinase-mediated antiviral response. It also regulates the transcriptional activity of Myc during the maintenance of embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency, and may act as a novel regulator for Myc-mediated transcription in ES cells. TRIM22, also known as 50 kDa-stimulated trans-acting factor (Staf-50) or RING finger protein 94 (RNF94), is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that plays an integral role in the host innate immune response to viruses. It has been shown to inhibit the replication of a number of viruses, including HIV-1, hepatitis B, and influenza A. TRIM22 acts as a suppressor of basal HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven transcription by preventing the transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) binding to the HIV-1 promoter. It also controls FoxO4 activity and cell survival by directing Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-stimulated cells toward type I interferon (IFN) type I gene induction or apoptosis. Moreover, TRIM22 can activate the noncanonical nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway by activating I kappa B kinase alpha (IKKalpha). It also regulates nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2)-dependent activation of interferon-beta signaling and nuclear factor-kappaB. TRIM34, also known as interferon-responsive finger protein 1 or RING finger protein 21 (RNF21), may function as antiviral protein that contribute to the defense against retroviral infections.