RING finger, HC subclass, found in tripartite motif-containing protein 62 (TRIM62) and similar proteins
TRIM62, also known as Ductal Epithelium Associated Ring Chromosome 1 (DEAR1), is a cytoplasmic E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that was identified as a dominant regulator of acinar morphogenesis in the mammary gland. It is implicated in the inflammatory response of immune cells by regulating the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway, leading to increased activity of the activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor in primary macrophages. It is also involved in muscular protein homeostasis, especially during inflammation-induced atrophy, and may play a role in the pathogenesis of ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) by activating and maintaining inflammation in myocytes. Moreover, TRIM62 facilitates K27-linked poly-ubiquitination of CARD9 and also regulates CARD9-mediated anti-fungal immunity and intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, TRIM62 is involved in the regulation of apical-basal polarity and acinar morphogenesis. It also functions as a chromosome 1p35 tumor suppressor and negatively regulates transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-driven epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through binding to and promoting the ubiquitination of SMAD3, a major effector of TGFbeta-mediated EMT. TRIM62 belongs to the C-IV subclass of TRIM (tripartite motif) family of proteins that are defined by their N-terminal RBCC (RING, Bbox, and coiled coil) domains, including three consecutive zinc-binding domains, a C3HC4-type RING-HC finger, Bbox1 and Bbox2, and a coiled coil region, as well as a B30.2/SPRY (SplA and ryanodine receptor) domain positioned C-terminal to the RBCC domain.