RING finger, HC subclass, found in RING finger protein 14 (RNF14) and similar proteins
RNF14, also known as androgen receptor-associated protein 54 (ARA54), HFB30, or Triad2 protein, is a RBR-type E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that is highly expressed in the testis and interacts with class III E2s (UBE2E2, UbcH6, and UBE2E3). Its differential localization may play an important role in testicular development and spermatogenesis in humans. RNF14 functions as a transcriptional regulator of mitochondrial and immune function in muscle. It is a ligand-dependent androgen receptor (AR) co-activator that enhances AR-dependent transcriptional activation. It also may participate in enhancing cell cycle progression and cell proliferation via induction of cyclin D1. Moreover, RNF14 is crucial for colon cancer cell survival. It acts as a new enhancer of the Wnt-dependent transcriptional outputs that acts at the level of the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF)-beta-catenin complex. RNF14 contains an N-terminal RWD domain and a C-terminal RBR domain. The RBR domain was previously known as RING-BetweenRING-RING domain or TRIAD [two RING fingers and a DRIL (double RING finger linked)] domain. Based on current understanding of the structural biology of RBR ligases, the nomenclature of RBR has been corrected as RING-BRcat (benign-catalytic)-Rcat (required-for-catalysis) recently. The RBR (RING1-BRcat-Rcat) domain uses an auto-inhibitory mechanism to modulate ubiquitination activity, as well as a hybrid mechanism that combines aspects from both RING and HECT E3 ligase function to facilitate the ubiquitination reaction. This family corresponds to the RING domain, a C3HC4-type RING-HC finger required for RBR-mediated ubiquitination.