Modified RING finger, HC subclass (C4C4-type), found in HOIL-1-interacting protein (HOIP) and similar proteins
HOIP, also known as RING finger protein 31 (RNF31) or zinc in-between-RING-finger ubiquitin-associated domain protein, together with HOIL-1 and SHARPIN, forms the E3-ligase complex (also known as linear-ubiquitin-chain assembly complex LUBAC) that regulates NF-kappaB activity and apoptosis. It also interacts with the atypical mammalian orphan receptor DAX-1, trigger DAX-1 ubiquitination and stabilization, and participate in repressing steroidogenic gene expression. HOIP contains three Npl4 zinc fingers, a central ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain responsible for the interaction with the N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain (UBL) of HOIL-1L, a RBR domain, and a C-terminal linear chain determining domain (LDD). The RBR domain was previously known as RING-BetweenRING-RING domain or TRIAD [two RING fingers and a DRIL (double RING finger linked)] domain. Based on current understanding of the structural biology of RBR ligases, the nomenclature of RBR has been corrected as RING-BRcat (benign-catalytic)-Rcat (required-for-catalysis) recently. The RBR (RING1-BRcat-Rcat) domain use an auto-inhibitory mechanism to modulate ubiquitination activity, as well as a hybrid mechanism that combines aspects from both RING and HECT E3 ligase function to facilitate the ubiquitination reaction. This family corresponds to the RING domain, a C4C4-type RING finger motif whose overall folding is similar to that of the C3HC4-type RING-HC finger. It is required for RBR-mediated ubiquitination.