Modified RING finger, HC subclass (C3HC3D-type), found in tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 7 (TRAF7) and similar proteins
TRAF7, also known as RING finger and WD repeat-containing protein 1 or RING finger protein 119 (RNF119), is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase involved in signal transduction pathways that lead either to activation or repression of NF-kappaB transcription factor through promoting K29-linked ubiquitination of several cellular targets, including the NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO) and the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB transcription factor. It is also involved in K29-linked polyubiquitination that has been implicated in lysosomal degradation of proteins. Moreover, TRAF7 is required for K48-linked ubiquitination of p53, a key tumor suppressor and a master regulator of various signaling pathways, such as those related to apoptosis, cell cycle and DNA repair. It is also required for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-induced Jun N-terminal kinase activation and promotes cell death by regulating polyubiquitination and lysosomal degradation of c-FLIP protein. Furthermore, TRAF7 functions as small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase involved in other post-translational modification, such as sumoylation. It binds to and stimulates sumoylation of the proto-oncogene product c-Myb, a transcription factor regulating proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. It potentiates MEKK3-induced AP1 and CHOP activation and induces apoptosis. Meanwhile, TRAF7 mediates MyoD1 regulation of the pathway and cell-cycle progression in myoblasts. It also plays a role in Toll-like receptors (TLR) signaling. TRAF7 contains an N-terminal domain with a modified C3HC3D-type RING-HC finger and an adjacent zinc finger, and a unique C-terminal domain that comprises a coiled coil domain and seven WD40 repeats.