RING finger, H2 subclass, found in RING finger protein 13 (RNF13), RING finger protein 167 (RNF167), and similar proteins
This subfamily includes RING finger protein 13 (RNF13), RING finger protein 167 (RNF167), Zinc/RING finger protein 4 (ZNRF4), and similar proteins, which belong to a larger PA-TM-RING ubiquitin ligase family that has been characterized by containing an N-terminal signal peptide, a protease-associated (PA) domain, a transmembrane domain (TM), and a C-terminal C3H2C3-type RING-H2 finger domain followed by a putative PEST sequence. RNF13 is a widely expressed membrane-associated E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that is functionally significant in the regulation of cancer development, muscle cell growth, and neuronal development. Its expression is developmentally regulated during myogenesis and is upregulated in various tumors. RNF13 negatively regulates cell proliferation through its E3 ligase activity. RNF167, also known as RING105, is an endosomal/lysosomal E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase involved in alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) ubiquitination. It acts as an endosomal membrane protein which ubiquitylates vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP3) and regulates endosomal trafficking. Moreover, RNF167 plays a role in the regulation of TSSC5 (tumor-suppressing subchromosomal transferable fragment cDNA; also known as ORCTL2/IMPT1/BWR1A/SLC22A1L), which can function in concert with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH6. ZNRF4, also known as RING finger protein 204 (RNF204), or Nixin, is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-anchored ubiquitin ligase that physically interacts with the ER-localized chaperone calnexin in a glycosylation-independent manner, induces calnexin ubiquitination, and p97-dependent degradation, indicating an ER-associated degradation-like mechanism of calnexin turnover. The murine protein sperizin (spermatid-specific ring zinc finger) is a homolog of human ZNRF4. It is specifically expressed in Haploid germ cells and involved in spermatogenesis.