Modified RING-CH finger, H2 subclass (C4HC2H-type), found in zinc/RING finger protein 1 (ZNRF1) and similar proteins
ZNRF1, also known as Nerve injury-induced gene 283 protein (nin283), or peripheral nerve injury protein (PNIP), is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that is highly expressed in the nervous system during development and is associated with synaptic vesicle membranes. It is N-myrisotoylated and also located in the endosome-lysosome compartment in fibroblasts, suggesting it may participate in ubiquitin-mediated protein modification. It contains an N-terminal MAGE domain, and a special C-terminal domain that combines a zinc finger and a modified C4HC2H-type RING-CH finger, rather than the typical C4HC3-type RING-CH finger, which is a variant of RING-H2 finger. Only the RING finger of the zinc finger-RING finger motif is required for its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. ZNRF1 regulates Schwann cell differentiation by proteasomal degradation of glutamine synthetase (GS). It also mediates regulation of neuritogenesis via interaction with beta-tubulin type 2 (Tubb2). Moreover, ZNRF1 promotes Wallerian degeneration by degrading AKT to induce glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3B)-dependent CRMP2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, ZNRF1 and its sister protein ZNRF2 regulate the ubiquitous Na+/K+ pump (Na+/K+ATPase). In addition, ZNRF1 may be associated with leukemogenesis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with paired box domain gene 5 (PAX5) alteration.