RING finger found in polycomb group RING finger protein 2 (PCGF2) and similar proteins
PCGF2, also known as DNA-binding protein Mel-18, RING finger protein 110 (RNF110), or zinc finger protein 144 (ZNF144), is one of six PcG RING finger (PCGF) homologs (PCGF1/NSPc1, PCGF2/Mel-18, PCGF3, PCGF4/BMI1, PCGF5, and PCGF6/MBLR) and serves as the core component of a canonical Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), which is composed of a chromodomain-containing protein (CBX2, CBX4, CBX6, CBX7 or CBX8) and a Polyhomeotic protein (PHC1, PHC2, or PHC3). Like other PCGF homologs, PCGF2 associates with ring finger protein 2 (RNF2) to form a RNF2-PCGF heterodimer, which is catalytically competent as an E3 ubiquitin transferase and is the scaffold for the assembly of additional components. Moreover, PCGF2 uniquely regulates PRC1 to specify mesoderm cell fate in embryonic stem cells. It is required for PRC1 stability and maintenance of gene repression in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and essential for ESC differentiation into early cardiac-mesoderm precursors. PCGF2 also plays a significant role in the angiogenic function of endothelial cells (ECs) by regulating endothelial gene expression. Furthermore, PCGF2 is a SUMO-dependent regulator of hormone receptors. It facilitates the deSUMOylation process by inhibiting PCGF4/BMI1-mediated ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation of SUMO1/sentrin-specific protease 1 (SENP1). It is also a novel negative regulator of breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) that inhibits the stem cell population and in vitro and in vivo self-renewal through the inactivation of Wnt-mediated Notch signaling. PCGF2 contains a C3HC4-type RING-HC finger.