RING finger found in polycomb group RING finger protein 4 (PCGF4) and similar proteins
PCGF4, also known as polycomb complex protein BMI-1 (B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1) or RING finger protein 51 (RNF51), is one of six PcG RING finger (PCGF) homologs (PCGF1/NSPc1, PCGF2/Mel-18, PCGF3, PCGF4/BMI1, PCGF5, and PCGF6/MBLR) and serves as the core component of a canonical Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), which is composed of a chromodomain-containing protein (CBX2, CBX4, CBX6, CBX7 or CBX8) and a Polyhomeotic protein (PHC1, PHC2, or PHC3), and plays important roles in chromatin compaction and H2AK119 monoubiquitination. PCGF4 associates with the Runx1/CBFbeta transcription factor complex to silence target gene in a PRC2-independent manner. Moreover, PCGF4 is expressed in the hair cells and supporting cells. It can regulate cell survival by controlling mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in thymocytes and neurons, thus having an important role in the survival and sensitivity to ototoxic drug of auditory hair cells. Furthermore, PCGF4 controls memory CD4 T-cell survival through direct repression of Noxa gene in an Ink4a- and Arf-independent manner. It is required in neurons to suppress p53-induced apoptosis via regulating the antioxidant defensive response, and also involved in the tumorigenesis of various cancer types. PCGF4 contains a C3HC4-type RING-HC finger.