RING finger, HC subclass, found in seven in absentia homolog 1 (SIAH1) and similar proteins
SIAH1, also known as Siah-1a, is an inducible E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that contributes to proteasome-mediated degradation of multiple targets in numerous cellular processes including apoptosis, tumor suppression, cell cycle, axon guidance, transcription regulation, and tumor necrosis factor signaling. SIAH1 functions as a scaffolding protein and interacts with a variety of different substrates for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. It regulates the oncoprotein p34SEI-1 polyubiquitination and its subsequent degradation in a p53-dependent manner, which mediates p53 preferential vitamin C cytotoxicity. It targets the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase activated Cdc42-associated kinase 1 (ACK1), a valid target in cancer therapy, for ubiquitinylation and proteasomal degradation. It also interacts with KLF10 and targets for its degradation. The CDK2 phosphorylation-mediates KLF10 dissociation from SIAH1 is linked to cell cycle progression. Moreover, Siah1 is downregulated and associated with apoptosis and invasion in human breast cancer. It targets TAp73, a homolog of the tumor suppressor p53, for degradation. It is suppressed by hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1alpha) under hypoxic conditions to regulate TAp73 levels. It also promotes the migration and invasion of human glioma cells by regulating HIF-1alpha signaling under hypoxia. Furthermore, Siah1 forms a protein complex with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) functions as an activator of the GAPDH-Siah1 stress-signaling cascade. It also plays an important role in ethanol-induced apoptosis in neural crest cells (NCCs). SIAH1 contains an N-terminal C3HC4-type RING-HC finger, two zinc-finger subdomains, and a C-terminal tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factor (TRAF)-like substrate-binding domain (SBD) responsible for dimer formation.