Modified RING finger, HC subclass (C4C4-type), found in RING finger protein 144B (RNF144B)
RNF144B, also known as PIR2, IBR domain-containing protein 2 (IBRDC2), or p53-inducible RING finger protein (p53RFP), is a transmembrane (TM) domain-containing RBR (RING1-IBR-RING2) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that induces p53-dependent, but caspase-independent apoptosis. It interacts with E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes UbcH7 and UbcH8, but not with UbcH5. It is involved in ubiquitination and degradation of p21, a p53 downstream protein promoting growth arrest and antagonizing apoptosis, suggesting a role in switching a cell from p53-mediated growth arrest to apoptosis. Moreover, RNF144B regulates the levels of Bax, a pro-apoptotic protein from the Bcl-2 family, and protects cells from unprompted Bax activation and cell death. It also regulates epithelial homeostasis by mediating degradation of p21WAF1 and p63. RNF144B contains a RBR domain followed by a potential single-TM domain. The RBR domain was previously known as RING-BetweenRING-RING domain or TRIAD [two RING fingers and a DRIL (double RING finger linked)] domain. Based on current understanding of the structural biology of RBR ligases, the nomenclature of RBR has been corrected as RING-BRcat (benign-catalytic)-Rcat (required-for-catalysis) recently. The RBR (RING1-BRcat-Rcat) domain use an auto-inhibitory mechanism to modulate ubiquitination activity, as well as a hybrid mechanism that combines aspects from both RING and HECT E3 ligase function to facilitate the ubiquitination reaction. This family corresponds to the RING domain, a C4C4-type RING finger whose overall folding is similar to that of the C3HC4-type RING-HC finger. It is required for RBR-mediated ubiquitination.