Modified RING finger, HC subclass (C3HC5-type), found in mahogunin RING finger protein 1 (MGRN1) and similar proteins
MGRN1, also known as RING finger protein 156 (RNF156), is a cytosolic E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that inhibits signaling through the G protein-coupled melanocortin receptors-1 (MC1R), -2 (MC2R) and -4 (MC4R) via ubiquitylation-dependent and -independent processes. It suppresses chaperone-associated misfolded protein aggregation and toxicity. MGRN1 interacts with cytosolic prion proteins (PrPs) that are linked with neurodegeneration. It also interacts with expanded polyglutamine proteins, and suppresses misfolded polyglutamine aggregation and cytotoxicity. Moreover, MGRN1 inhibits melanocortin receptor signaling by competition with Galphas, suggesting a novel pathway for melanocortin signaling from the cell surface to the nucleus. Furthermore, MGRN1 interacts with and ubiquitylates TSG101, a key component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-I, and regulates endosomal trafficking. A null mutation in the gene encoding MGRN1 causes spongiform neurodegeneration, suggesting a link between dysregulation of endosomal trafficking and spongiform neurodegeneration. MGRN1 contains a modified C3HC5-type RING-HC finger, a conserved PSAP motif necessary for interaction between MGRN1 and TSG101. In addition, MGRN1 harbors a functionally uncharacterized region, as known as the domain associated with RING2 (DAR2), N-terminal to the RING finger. The C3HC5-type RING-HC finger is distinguished from typical C3HC4 RING-HC finger due to the existence of the additional cysteine residue in the middle portion of the RING finger domain.