C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of the type found in natural killer cell receptors (NKRs)
CLECT_NK_receptors_like: C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of the type found in natural killer cell receptors (NKRs), including proteins similar to oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) receptor (LOX-1), CD94, CD69, NKG2-A and -D, osteoclast inhibitory lectin (OCIL), dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin-1 (dectin-1), human myeloid inhibitory C-type lectin-like receptor (MICL), mast cell-associated functional antigen (MAFA), killer cell lectin-like receptors: subfamily F, member 1 (KLRF1) and subfamily B, member 1 (KLRB1), and lys49 receptors. CTLD refers to a domain homologous to the carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) of the C-type lectins. NKRs are variously associated with activation or inhibition of natural killer (NK) cells. Activating NKRs stimulate cytolysis by NK cells of virally infected or transformed cells; inhibitory NKRs block cytolysis upon recognition of markers of healthy self cells. Most Lys49 receptors are inhibitory; some are stimulatory. OCIL inhibits NK cell function via binding to the receptor NKRP1D. Murine OCIL in addition to inhibiting NK cell function inhibits osteoclast differentiation. MAFA clusters with the type I Fc epsilon receptor (FcepsilonRI) and inhibits the mast cells secretory response to FcepsilonRI stimulus. CD72 is a negative regulator of B cell receptor signaling. NKG2D is an activating receptor for stress-induced antigens; human NKG2D ligands include the stress induced MHC-I homologs, MICA, MICB, and ULBP family of glycoproteins Several NKRs have a carbohydrate-binding capacity which is not mediated through calcium ions (e.g. OCIL binds a range of high molecular weight sulfated glycosaminoglycans including dextran sulfate, fucoidan, and gamma-carrageenan sugars). Dectin-1 binds fungal beta-glucans and in involved in the innate immune responses to fungal pathogens. MAFA binds saccharides having terminal alpha-D mannose residues in a calcium-dependent manner. LOX-1 is the major receptor for OxLDL in endothelial cells and thought to play a role in the pathology of atherosclerosis. Some NKRs exist as homodimers (e.g.Lys49, NKG2D, CD69, LOX-1) and some as heterodimers (e.g. CD94/NKG2A). Dectin-1 can function as a monomer in vitro.